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    [title] => Birla Carbon, CHASM Advanced Materials to Develop Nanotube Enhanced Carbons
    [short_title] => 
    [summary] => The 2 companies will share research and engineering resources to develop and manufacture hybrid nanomaterials based on carbon substrates and carbon nanotubes.
    [slug] => birla-carbon-chasm-advanced-materials-to-develop-nanotube-enhanced-carbons
    [body] => Birla Carbon and CHASM Advanced Materials Inc. are joining forces to accelerate the discovery and development of novel nanomaterials to benefit various market segments including high-performance tires, novel coatings and next-generation batteries.

“The combination of CHASM’s expertise in nanotube enhancement and our deep knowledge of carbon substrates and applications offers us the chance to rapidly advance our understanding of these high-performance, scalable nanomaterials," said  Dr. Santrupt B. Misra, CEO, Birla Carbon, director, chemicals and director, group HR, Aditya Birla Group.

“As one of the world’s leading producers of engineered nanomaterials, CHASM looks forward to collaborating with Birla Carbon, who offer us faster access to customers and markets," added David Arthur, CHASM, CEO and co-founder.

Through this joint development agreement, the two companies will share research and engineering resources to develop and manufacture hybrid nanomaterials based on carbon substrates and carbon nanotubes.

These hybrid nanomaterials will combine CHASM’s nanotube enhanced carbon (NTeC) technology with Birla Carbon’s expertise in commercialization and manufacturing. In so doing, the companies anticipate jointly developing novel carbon nanomaterials tailored for performance in a wide variety of demanding applications. [views] => 0 [published] => 1 [status] => 3 [priority] => 0 [publish_date] => 2019-11-19 11:20:00 [updated_at] => 2019-11-19 11:31:43 [last_updated_author] => 228513 [uploaded_by] => 228513 [user_role_id] => 0 [custom_fields] => [] [custom_fields_old] => [splitcontent] => 1 [content_url] => [related_content_ids] => ["319448","319101","322495","322271","322652","321390","322997","315126","315146","316137","326288","325521","323915","319250","317048"] [is_show_company_name] => [created_at] => 2019-11-19 11:20:18 [contentType] => ContentType Object ( [className] => ContentType [content] => Array ( ) [taxonomy] => Array ( ) [listURL] => [logoUrl] => https: [id] => 2487 [pageNumber] => [offset] => [totalPages] => [last_query] => [last_sql] => [show_errors] => 1 [databaseServer] => Array ( [key] => master [host] => 172.24.16.232 [user] => rodpub_beta [pass] => MvQQzhse92k58yA [db] => rodpub_beta ) [tableName] => content_types [tag] => breaking_news [short_tag] => breaking_news [class_name] => [display_view] => [list_view] => [slug] => breaking-news [box_view] => [ignore_flag] => 0 [image_id] => 0 [layout_id] => 0 [formattedTag] => Breaking News ) [viewURL] => /contents/view_breaking-news/2019-11-19/birla-carbon-chasm-advanced-materials-to-develop-nanotube-enhanced-carbons/ [relatedArticles] => Array ( [0] => Content Object ( [className] => Content [contentLinks] => Array ( ) [belongsTo] => [contentIssue] => [id] => 315146 [pageNumber] => [offset] => [totalPages] => [last_query] => [last_sql] => [show_errors] => 1 [databaseServer] => Array ( [key] => master [host] => 172.24.16.232 [user] => rodpub_beta [pass] => MvQQzhse92k58yA [db] => rodpub_beta ) [tableName] => contents [content_type_id] => 2486 [resource_id] => 0 [author_id] => 0 [primary_issue_slug] => 2019-06-01 [author_name] => {"name":"Kerry Pianoforte","title":"Editor"} [magazine_id] => 5 [layout_id] => 0 [primary_image] => 0 [primary_image_old] => [slider_image_id] => [banner_image] => 0 [title] => Performance Enhancing Additives [short_title] => [summary] => [slug] => performance-enhancing-additives--688643 [body] => This month Coatings World interviewed a number of key suppliers of performance-enhancing additives. These include: Shiona Stewart, industry marketing manager, Transporation, Industrial, Furniture and Floor Coatings, BASF and Mary Ellen Gustainis, business director, Performance and Formulation Additives, BASF; Dr. Joerg Hinnerwisch, BYK technical director Research & Development, Head of Technology Group Wetting & Dispersing; Dave Grabacki, president, keim additc USA; Richard Czarnecki, director of Business Development, Micro Powders, Inc.; Joon Choo, vice president, Shamrock Technologies; Robert Ruckle, market manager at Siltech; Erin Bellomy of Solvay and Dr. Ismael Colon, senior vice resident, Science & Technology at Troy Corp.

CW: What types of performance-enhancing additives does your company offer? 

Stewart: BASF has a broad portfolio of light-stabilizing and UV absorbing technologies as well as formulation additives that enhance application properties, rheological profile, surface aesthetics and appearance, and color integrity for many different types of coating chemistries.  Our extensive family of enabling additives are targeted to provide superior performance for coatings that have been optimized to meet the demanding environments encountered in the Transportation, Industrial, Decorative, Construction, and Flooring Markets.  Our light stabilizing and UV absorbing technologies include a wide range of benzotriazole, triazine, and hindered amine light stabilizer chemistries as well as specialty offerings such as a new and unique photolatent metal catalyst targeted for 2K polyurethane coating systems. 

Hinnerwisch: BYK offers a broad range of performance-enhancing additive solutions, which open up new opportunities for coating and ink formulators. These include wetting and dispersing additives based on novel chemistries, which provide sufficient viscosity reduction and deflocculation properties for inorganic/organic pigments, with the lowest possible performance impact as regards water, corrosion
and staining.

Grabacki: keimgroup with its affiliated producing companies keim additec surface, silcona, euroceras and ceronas is offering besides a broad variety of aqueous ULTRALUBE wax additives and high performance SILCO coating additives also different types of solid/micronized waxes under the brand names CERALENE and mju:wax.

Czarnecki: While Micro Powders began nearly 50 years ago as a supplier of micronized waxes, our particle technology expertise has expanded into the development of high-performance additives that are more functional and efficient.

Choo: Shamrock offers a range of micronized powders and dispersions for a wide variety of coatings systems to improve the surface slip, feel, water repellency, and mar/abrasion resistance, as well as to control the gloss and texture/appearance of
the coatings.

Ruckle:  Siltech offers a wide variety of chemically modified silicones.  The versatility of the silicone polymer allows for attachment of groups that add solubility in oil or water, reactivity, or other unique properties.  Siltech offers a myriad of Silmer reactive silicones each with a reactive group that matches the reactive moieties used in the resin chemistry.  For example, we have epoxy, hydroxyl or primary amine functional Silmer additives any of which react into an epoxy resin system. Siltech even offers NCO functional silicones which can react with urethane prepolymers which often are made with hydroxyl groups exposed rather than NCO.

Bellomy: Solvay provide a series of paint additives for paint formulators. It includes defoamer, wetting, dispersant, high boiling point coalescent and specialty additive, such as VOC free freeze-thaw agent and open time extender.

Colon: As a dedicated supplier of a broad portfolio of advanced additives, in addition to preservatives and driers, Troy Corporation offers a full line of performance-enhancing products, including defoamers, rheology modifiers, thixotropic agents, substrate wetting and flow & leveling additives, mar resistance & slip agents, and dispersants. These performance additives are developed for a broad range of aqueous and non-aqueous system types.

CW: Given the added cost associated with these types of additives, what are the benefits to the customer? 

Gustainis: The customer is essentially given the key to creating high-value, high-performance coatings is protection against a variety of degrading environmental and artificial factors, including solar radiation, temperature change, and chemical interactions.
Thermal degradation that can occur during processing, production, and service life is another main area of concern in the coatings space. BASF’s Irganox portfolio of antioxidants based on sterically hindered phenols, phosphites, and thioethers act to protect coatings, fibers, adhesives, and sealants against thermal oxidation.

Stewart: Our Tinuvin branded chemistries offer extended protection from UV degradation, truly differentiated protection for carbon fiber-reinforced plastics or glass fiber-reinforced plastics where fibers are embedded in an epoxy matrix requiring outstanding photo permanence and protection, and low-no migration throughout the coating and substrate with no exudation in polar solvent borne systems.  Importantly, our Tinuvin chemistries, through the use of our patented BASF Tinuvin Novel Encapsulation Additive Technology, or “NEAT” encapsulation technology, are also able to be modified for use in waterborne coatings.

The versatility and flexibility of our portfolio offers our customers the ability to select the optimum product offering for their unique formulation space. 

Hinnerwisch: Multifunctional BYK wetting and dispersing additives not only promote coating aesthetics and facilitate processing via viscosity reduction, but also improve stain and water resistance capabilities. As such, these additives play a major role in the improvement of a coating’s lifespan, and formulators can add longevity to their products by the cautious selection of BYK’s wetting & dispersing additives for water-borne coatings.

Grabacki: The broad product portfolios of the different companies within the group ensures the possibility of a very precise adjustment of the desired surface properties to achieve with the particular types; besides this several types of additives can be supplied out of “one-hand.”

Czarnecki: We can demonstrate that, with proper particle additive design, a more expensive additive, used at a lower dosage than a lower performance wax, can deliver better performance and economics.

Choo: Some of these additives are unique in the surface effect they can offer, especially to withstand tough processing conditions and for the extended term protective coatings.

Ruckle: Silicone additives provide slip, COF reduction, release, pencil hardness and anti-blocking all from the low surface energy of the silicone polymer.  Many of these can also provide surface tension reduction which leads to wetting, flow and leveling, air release and defect elimination.  Finally the reactive Silmer products will change the mechanical properties of the film typically adding flexibility, elongation, strength and impact resistance.  The inherent properties of the silicone backbone also provide permeability to gases and hydrophobicity.

Bellomy: Solvay solution answer challenging criteria and labeling requirements in the design of sustainable and environmentally-friendly products. Whether it is compliant with eco-labels such as GreenSeal, or suitable for claims and formulation requirements such as low or zero VOC, APE-free, biodegradable or renewable raw materials.

Colon: Value-added performance additives are essential to the formulation, production, and application of high-quality coatings, whether for architectural or industrial use, and aqueous or non-aqueous systems. Wetting and flow & leveling additives, such as Troy’s Troysol products, control a wide range of product properties, enhance surface appearance and integrity, and eliminate film defects. These additives allow the formulation of films with excellent resistance to mar and abrasion, with increased surface slip. Wetting and flow & leveling additives also allow for coating over many substrate types, including contaminated substrates. Dispersants, such as the Troysperse line, ensure optimum color strength and uniformity. Defoamers, such as Troykyd additives, eliminate entrapped air so that bubbles and pinholes don’t degrade the applied coating film. Thixotropic agents and rheology modifiers, like Troy’s Troythix products, improve the storage stability, application, and appearance of manufactured products and production processes, and enable precise control of the rheological properties of the materials to which they are added. Troythix rheology products enable control of viscosity, settling resistance and sag resistance.

CW: What considerations should formulators make when choosing a performance enhancing additive? 

Stewart: There are many critical determinations that need to be considered when selecting the appropriate additives.  Is the intended coating waterborne, solventborne, UV Curable, or powder?  Is the intended substrate known or are multiple substrates in consideration such as metal, plastic, composites, wood, and concrete?  Environmental exposure should also be considered and fully understood to determine what type of UV resistance is needed, especially for harsh exterior environments. This is especially important when selecting additives that will be used in automotive coating, exterior decking.  

Maintaining color integrity, resistance to fading and mechanical properties of organic substrates, as well as preventing delamination and gloss reduction from occurring in coatings due to years of exposure to degrading environmental factors such as UV rays is where BASF brings value to our customers.

Gustainis: Another key factor for formulators to consider is the type of activities that are required to produce the product. Thermal degradation encountered during processing steps such as synthesis, mixing, curing, or high-temperature-baking cycles is the main cause of yellowing, embrittlement, or loss of other mechanical properties such as tensile strength in
organic substrates.

Hinnerwisch: Pigment dispersions and their challenges for waterborne coatings are just one crucial aspect for paint formulators. In order to improve the overall performance of water-borne coatings, one should keep in mind all formulation components, such as rheological/surface modifiers, emulsifiers or thickeners and their interactions.

Grabacki: Besides satisfying the general technical needs at an adequate price/performance ratio especially more and more requests reaching us for environmentally acceptable (“green”) additives. We are facing this challenge by offering formulated products e.g. being VOC-free, without amines or other hazardous ingredients.

Czarnecki: Some of the factors we consider when recommending an additive are system type (water/solvent/UV), dry film thickness, and end use. We make recommendations to customers on a daily basis through our website since it can be intimidating to find the best additive for a given project.

Choo: Not all additives are created equal, nor will they offer the same degree of efficacy. Formulators ought to consider their ease of use/incorporation, stability and compatibility with their system, as well as the immediate vs long term performance features they impart.

Ruckle: There are many variables in silicone additives including molecular weight, molecular architecture, degree and type of functionality and cross-linking which affect the properties.  In particular, one has to be careful to ensure the additive has the right solubility so choosing the right additive for your situation is critical.  While some properties like foam control and release benefit from incompatibility too much incompatibility can cause problems from gloss reduction to defect formation.

Bellomy:  Usually, the formulator may consider the overall performance of  paint, such as color tinting strength, application work-ability and paint film durability. The costing is also considerate.

Colon: When choosing a performance-enhancing additive, formulators should consider system type – aqueous or non-aqueous – as well as pH, application temperature, and the type of incorporation the additive and the formulator’s manufacturing processes require. Furthermore, VOC and APEO requirements should be taken into account. Troy offers a broad portfolio of performance additives for every system type, including Z-line additives, which are zero VOC and APEO-free for modern ‘green’ systems. The new Troysperse ZWD line of dispersants is an excellent example of these ‘green’ products.

CW: What are the latest technologies being developed for additives in paint and coatings?

Stewart: Reactive technologies are growing in interest, because the reactivity offers almost synergistic effects, for incredible performance enhancement.  For example, our new reactive dispersant crosslinks into the main resin matrix for optimum hardness, while still delivering beautiful pigment dispersion…this is atypical for dispersants, where hardness and dispersing efficiency are often at odds with one another. 

Hinnerwisch: Multifunctional additives are gaining popularity all the time. BYK provides “smart” wetting and dispersing additives, which adjust their polarity in response to the changing chemical environment.

Since the additive undergoes a structural change and rearrangement during the drying process, the resulting architecture provides a reduction of water pick-up and, as such, improves the water resistance of the coating.

Grabacki: Today’s paint market is pushing for low- /non-emission paints. Solvents are no longer formulated. By that reason the time frame to rework painted areas is shortened and the open time needs to be extended.

SILCONA developed an open time extender without the negative side effects of decreased stain resistance or longterm stickiness. 

Choo: Surface and morphology modifications as well as the use of hybrid polymer/blends seem to be the trend today, to help ensure ease of incorporation, stability post incorporation, as well as ability to wet out easily at high loadings when concentrates are preferred for some production lines. Some formulated additive packages are also developed to be compliant with the changing regulatory environment.

Ruckle: Siltech is offering Silmer TMS products which are trialkoxy silane functional silicone derivatives. These provide interesting surface properties and help with adhesion, stain release and interaction with other surfaces such as pigments  This last property has been utilized by formulating Silmer TMS and mineral particles into super hydropbobic systems. These have also recently been shown to provide a secondary condensation cure in certain UV cured systems.

We have also recently developed Silmer ACRN products which are tetrafunctional UV reactive products that provide slip, flexibility and impact resistance with less problems from immiscibility such as loss of clarity or gloss.

Finally, our Silmer UACR products are hybrid urethane/silicone polymers designed to improve elongation in UV cured systems including 3D printing systems.

Bellomy:  Solvay just launched formaldehyde scavenger additive Rhodoline FS 360 for paint producer. With this additive, the paint producer can easily achieve formaldehyde scavenger properties by post adding to various different paint formulations.

Colon: Troy is a company built on innovation, and is committed to the research & development of the latest technologies to enable customers to lead in the marketplace. ‘Green,’ zero-VOC additives, such as Troy’s expanding Z-line, are increasingly important, and will remain the focus of R&D efforts. Multifunctional additives, such as Troykyd D209W and Troykyd D767, are also an important focus of our efforts. Multifunctional additives that perform the function of numerous additives are of interest to customers, as they simplify the formulation process, contribute less material and expense to formulations, and reduce inventory.

Troykyd D209W air release additive prevents micro- and macro-foam in both the process and application of a broad range of coating systems. The product provides high efficacy with good compatibility, significantly reducing or eliminating the occurrence of film defects.

Troykyd D767 is a highly effective mineral oil-free and silicone-free defoamer for aqueous systems. It is effective over a wide range of pH, temperatures, viscosities,
and sheens. 

CW: Please provide a brief description of up to two new performance enhancing additives.

Stewart: Solyfast 0010 is an organotin-free photolatent metal catalyst recommended for use in curing 2-component polyurethane systems and provides a wide variety of benefits due to its unique ability to accelerate cure times with low energy (ambient) temperatures.  This performance benefit addresses the issues associated with having to heat very large objects, such as the wing of an airplane, or heat-sensitive parts such as plastic components, or even heavy metal exterior structures.  Solyfast 0010 will also increase production productivity via faster throughput, and short handling or moving times of recently coated parts.

Tinuvin 249 is a non-basic hindered amine light stabilizer designed to meet the high-performance requirements of solventborne Automotive, Industrial, or Decorative Coatings that demand superior formulation compatibility and outstanding thermal, color, and shelf stability.

Hinnerwisch: Wetting & dispersing additives play a critical role in the formulation of water-borne coatings; however, their hydrophilic structural moieties can impair the coating properties. DISPERBYK-2080 and DISPERBYK-2081 provide excellent viscosity reduction in inorganic pigments and fillers, without negatively affecting water and corrosion resistance. This is especially important for anticorrosive primers and DTM coatings, as well as industrial wood coatings, where stain resistance is expected.

Grabacki: SILCO OZ 100 retards water within the film and is an open time extender for paints and coatings. The product provides additionally gloss enhancement as well as wetting properties without effecting the stain resistance or hardness of the film. mju:wax 9200 – micronized wax modified FT-wax compound for solvent based coatings. Provides; outstanding metal marking resistance, excellent slip properties, very good anti-blocking properties and scratch resistance.

Czarnecki: Micro Powders has offered products based on our Composite Wax Technology for many years. In recent years, we expanded this technology to include a range of HD (high density) powders, specifically designed for better stability in water based and UV systems.  Most recently, we pioneered the concept of Nanocomposite Wax Technology, where we incorporate highly functional nanomaterials into a safe, easy to disperse powders.  We now offer four products in our AL (alumina) series that offer best-in-class scratch and Taber abrasion resistance.

Choo: Shamrock Neptune 250-SD2 is an example of a recent additive that was introduced bearing some of the above factors and performance features. AquaFLON MG represents the best balance of hybrid polymers available as a pre-dispersion for use in water based inks and coatings.

Bellomy: Rhodoline FS 360 is a high-performance formaldehyde scavenger additive. High formaldehyde scavenging efficiency/capacity; no negative impact on paint performance, such as yellowing, heat stability, wet scrub resistance; formulation and process flexibility; can formulate both low and high PVC paint and can be both used in new formulation or post-added to existing formula and low VOC, low odor. [views] => 0 [published] => 1 [status] => 3 [priority] => 0 [publish_date] => 2019-05-31 09:01:00 [updated_at] => 2019-05-31 08:22:14 [last_updated_author] => 188865 [uploaded_by] => 142069 [user_role_id] => 0 [custom_fields] => [] [custom_fields_old] => [splitcontent] => 1 [content_url] => [related_content_ids] => ["311654","312921","305606","306615","303961","314193","308841","314198","306287","314622","303278","314490","310202","309294","308843"] [is_show_company_name] => [created_at] => 2019-05-29 12:55:28 ) [1] => Content Object ( [className] => Content [contentLinks] => Array ( ) [belongsTo] => [contentIssue] => [id] => 315126 [pageNumber] => [offset] => [totalPages] => [last_query] => [last_sql] => [show_errors] => 1 [databaseServer] => Array ( [key] => master [host] => 172.24.16.232 [user] => rodpub_beta [pass] => MvQQzhse92k58yA [db] => rodpub_beta ) [tableName] => contents [content_type_id] => 2773 [resource_id] => 0 [author_id] => 0 [primary_issue_slug] => 2019-06-01 [author_name] => {"name":"Otto Soidinsalo, Synnøve Holtan, Ali Moosavifar","title":"Borregaard, Sarpsborg, Norway"} [magazine_id] => 5 [layout_id] => 0 [primary_image] => 189391 [primary_image_old] => 123035 [slider_image_id] => 189397 [banner_image] => 0 [title] => Microfibrillated Cellulose A Novel and Renewable Multifunctional Additive for Waterborne Coatings [short_title] => [summary] => [slug] => microfibrillated-cellulose-a-novel-and-renewable-multifunctional-additive-for-waterborne-coatings [body] => Abstract

There is a growing interest to move toward waterborne systems in the coatings industry due to environmental and occupational health reasons. However, the change is not always straightforward and often new technologies are required to obtain the same performance as with solventborne systems.

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), a value-added and multifunctional product made of cellulose, consists of fibers with lateral dimensions in the nanoscale range and lengths up to the micron scale. The main characteristic of this unique fiber structure is its resemblance to both water-soluble polymers and insoluble additives, leading to a versatile and efficient alternative to technologies currently available. The high inertness, compatibility and stability of MFC opens up new possibilities for waterborne coatings, especially for the more demanding formulations. MFC secures high viscosity at rest, giving good stability, as well as offering shear thinning behavior and rapid viscosity build-up, which prevents sag during application.

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of MFC on the rheological behavior of the coating formulation as well as on the final film properties. Waterborne exterior flat paint, based on a blend of acrylic and vinyl acrylic binders, was used to investigate the effect of MFC on the prevention of syneresis as well as mud cracking of the coating. Deep base acrylic paint was used to evaluate the effectiveness of MFC in preventing viscosity loss on tinting, color float and sagging.

We demonstrate how MFC can solve typical challenges in waterborne high-quality architectural coatings regarding, for example, mud-cracking, viscosity loss upon tinting, sagging and sprayability.

Introduction

It is commonly known that waterborne formulations still suffer from several issues and it`s not always possible to obtain the same performance as with solvent-borne systems. One of the typical challenges with waterborne systems is related to the relatively rapid drying of the film leading to short open time. The short open time naturally creates challenges regarding the workability as well as the applicability. Short open times also set limits on the wet thickness of the film. Mud cracking is often observed when thick layers are applied and the drying takes place at low temperatures. Another challenge in waterborne systems is related to the behavior of rheology modifiers in the presence of surfactants as well as under extreme pH conditions. The common rheology modifiers can be divided roughly into two categories, associative and non-associative. The former is typically sensitive to the presence of surfactants and this is often seen after the tinting of the base paint. In most cases, the viscosity of the paint reduces as a consequence of disturbance in the associative network due to the surfactants present in the tinting paste.

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is a multifunctional additive for coatings, adhesives and sealants, with a pronounced effect in improving rheology, stabilization and surface properties. MFC is suitable for a wide variety of polar organic and waterborne systems, enabling the control of viscosity and modification of thixotropy of various water and polar solvent-based systems. The high inertness, compatibility and stability of MFC allows the development of stable and robust formulations, even under demanding conditions. In addition, MFC offers solutions for formulators for improved anti-settling, anti-syneresis and anti-cracking of the coatings formulations.

The compatibility and rheological behavior of microfibrillated cellulose has previously been studied in water-based acrylic and epoxy systems.1,2 The results from these studies showed that MFC dispersed very well into the resins and showed good compatibility. In addition, the viscosity and sag resistance increased with increasing concentration of MFC. Furthermore, the dispersions were heat stable in terms of sedimentation and retention of rheological properties.

The unique rheological properties of MFC lead to better control of the formulations by controlling the flow of the particles. It has been shown that MFC can prevent the coffee-ring effect during the drying process of films, leading to a better distribution of particles and pigments.3 This opens up possibilities for increased effectiveness and better color development of pigments and fillers, such as titanium dioxide.

Microfibrillated Cellulose

Microfibrillated cellulose was first introduced back in the eighties.4 During the years its potential and possible uses have been reported extensively, ranging from use as a thickener in cosmetics to an oxygen barrier in food packaging.5 Until the beginning of 2010 the research and small scale production of MFC was conducted mainly at universities and small pilot facilities. Borregaard launched the commercial production of MFC, opening a 1000 Dry MT Exilva factory in 2016 as the first one in the world.6

MFC consists of long and thin cellulose fibrils which form a three-dimensional (3D) network. The secret behind the unique properties is the extremely large surface area, combined with numerous hydroxyl groups on the surface of the fibrils. The interaction of MFC is based on physical as well as on chemical interaction in the formulation. The main characteristics of this unique fibril structure resembles a hybrid of water-soluble polymers and insoluble additives. MFC has high viscosity and yield stress, it is shear thinning and has high water holding capacity. The insoluble nature of the cellulose fibrils also leads to excellent stability and compatibility. MFC is stable at wide pH range (1-13) and is compatible with common water-miscible organic solvent as well as with surfactants.

Compared to common polymer solutions in water, the rheological properties of MFC suspensions are quite different. First of all, the viscosity does not reach a plateau at low shear as it normally does in polymer solutions. This can be seen in Figure 1, which shows that the viscosity of MFC suspension increases as the shear rate decreases. Instead, the viscosity of xanthan gum solution reaches a plateau around the shear rate of 0.1 s-1. This means that the viscosity at rest is much higher for MFC, in this case nearly 50 times higher, meaning considerably better stability under storage, especially in terms of syneresis and settling. At higher shear rates, xanthan gum solution and MFC suspension have comparable shear thinning which helps in pumping, spraying, mixing and application of the formulation.

Due to the high viscosity at low shear rate and very shear thinning behavior, MFC can also be used as a thickener in products that are intended to be applied by spraying. MFC secures high stability during storage and allows the spraying of very thick suspensions since the viscosity decreases during the spraying. However, when the product has been applied and no forces are applied, the viscosity recovers quickly, and the product remains where it impacted the surface without sagging (Figure 2). In addition to anti-sagging, the use of MFC leads to a non-dripping effect, which is often desired in coatings.

Materials and Methods

Commercially available MFC (Exilva® F 01-V) was used in this study,  containing 10 wt% microfibrillated cellulose in water (manufactured by Borregaard). The anti-mud-cracking effect of MFC was studied with an exterior acrylic paint formulation. A paint sample was applied by a Leneta Anti Sag Meter (14-60 mils) to the reverse side of Leneta Form 9A charts at ambient temperature and at 2 °C. The paints were allowed to dry in a flat position for 24 hours. The greatest mils without mud-cracking were reported. Sag resistance (tinted) was determined according to ASTM D4440, flow and levelling (tinted) according to ASTM D4062, gloss (tinted) according to ASTM D523 and scrub resistance according to ASTM D2486.

Results and Discussions

In order to understand the behaviour of MFC in waterborne systems, two different formulations were studied. Acrylic exterior flat coating was used to demonstrate the impact of MFC on drying behaviour of the curing film as well as the storage stability of the formulation. Interior acrylic deep base formulation was used to investigate the effect of MFC on viscosity loss after tinting as well as rheological and surface properties of the coating.

Acrylic Coating - Storage Stability and Drying Behaviour
The effect of MFC on storage stability and film properties was studied with exterior flat paint (Table 1). The formulation was based on a blend of acrylic and vinyl acrylic binders, with either hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) as a thickener or MFC as a functional additive. In both cases, non-ionic urethane rheology modifier (HEUR) was used to adjust the high-shear viscosity.
In addition to the rheology modification, the formulation based on MFC displayed increased mudcrack resistance during curing from 35 °F to 75 °F, outperforming the same formulation when based on HEC. With MFC, no cracking was observed even at 60 mils thickness, whereas the HEC paint displayed cracking for all thicknesses above 14 mils (Figure 3). The improved mud crack resistance is a consequence of the effect of MFC on the drying of the film. During the drying, MFC does not form a “skin” on top of the film, allowing the solvents to evaporate freely. MFC also increases the open time of the formulation as well as reduces the tackiness of the film. A clear difference in stability was also seen between the two formulations after two weeks’ heat stability testing at 120 °F. The formulation based on HEC showed moderate syneresis, whereas no syneresis was observed with the formulation based on MFC (Figure 4).

Effect of MFC on the Loss of Viscosity and Color Float of an Acrylic Coating Upon Tinting
The effect of MFC on film properties as well as its ability to prevent loss on tinting and color float was studied with an acrylic deep base formulation (Table 2). The formulation was based on an acrylic binder, with either non-ionic urethane modifier (HEUR) as a thickener or MFC as a functional additive. In both cases, HEUR thickener was used to adjust the high shear viscosity.

The effect of MFC on viscosity retention after tinting with 808-9907 Lamp Black (8 ounces per gallon) can be clearly seen from Figure 5. The viscosity of the HEUR-based formulation drops 12.6 %, whereas the formulation based on MFC only 4.0 %. The difference can be explained by the physical nature of the MFC fibrils. The thickening effect of MFC is based on the physical interaction with the fibrils as well as the hydrogen bonding with the other components in the system. Therefore, the network is not affected by the presence of surfactants or other hydrophobic compounds.

A major difference was also noticed on sagging (Table 3). The high viscosity at rest and relatively fast viscosity recovery of MFC, resulted in a sag resistance rating of 24 according to ASTM D4400, whereas the formulation based on HEUR resulted in a sag rating of 4. Color acceptance was at a similar level for both formulations. Color float was slightly lower for MFC. A strong effect on gloss was noticed when MFC was used as a rheology modifier. The gloss for the HEUR-based formulation was 37.2 (60°), whereas for the MFC-based formulation it was 10.1. As the levelling for both formulations was at a similar level, 9 for HEUR and 8 for MFC (ASTM D4062), the loss on gloss is thought to be related to the physical structure of the MFC fibrils, leading to a mattifying effect. This also means that MFC can be used to formulate smooth surface flat paints, at higher dosage levels. Both formulations showed good scrub resistance, with MFC showing slightly higher resistance (1351 vs 1278).

Conclusions

The effect of MFC on the rheology of the coating formulations as well as on the film properties is prominent. The effect is especially significant at low-temperature film formation, offering huge benefits when applying MFC in high-quality exterior paints for cold climates. MFC enables increased applied film thickness, thereby reducing the number of applied film layers required, without comprimising the final coating properties. The high viscosity at rest, combined with high yield stress results in stable formulations and allows homogenous formulations even in the presence of heavy particles or low density fillers. The relatively fast viscosity recovery leads to excellent sag resistance without sacrificing the levelling of the coating. In addition, the 3D MFC network is highly robust and is not affected by the addition of surfactants or changes in pH. MFC prevents viscosity loss after tinting and helps to reduce the color float of the coating. Depending on the dosage of MFC, effect on the gloss of the coating can be seen. This opens up possibilities to formulate smooth surface flat paints. MFC is a sustainable, VOC-free, multifunctional additive which can not only replace synthetic additives in formulations, but also contribute added value to the end products.

REFERENCES

1. A. Moosavifar and S. Holtan, European Coatings Congress proceedings, 2015.
2. A.M. Falkenberg Olsen, S. Holtan and A. Moosavifar, European Coatings Journal, 2015, 07/08, 30.
3.  Y. Ooi, I. Hanasaki, D. Mizumura and Y. Matsuda, Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 2017, 1, 316.
4. A. F, Turbak, F.W. Snyder and K.R. Sandberg, US Patent 4,500,546, 1982.
5. D. Klemm, F. Kramer, S. Moritz, T. Lindström, M. Ankerfors, D. Gray and A. Dorris, (2011) Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed. 2011, 24, 5438.
6.  www.exilva.com CW [views] => 0 [published] => 1 [status] => 3 [priority] => 0 [publish_date] => 2019-05-31 09:30:00 [updated_at] => 2019-05-31 08:31:23 [last_updated_author] => 188865 [uploaded_by] => 142069 [user_role_id] => 0 [custom_fields] => [] [custom_fields_old] => [splitcontent] => 1 [content_url] => [related_content_ids] => ["303382","309531","308282","307181","302906","312028","309038","309275","256815","313621","310550","314189","309261","309442","311730","309595"] [is_show_company_name] => [created_at] => 2019-05-29 10:36:19 ) [2] => Content Object ( [className] => Content [contentLinks] => Array ( ) [belongsTo] => [contentIssue] => [id] => 316137 [pageNumber] => [offset] => [totalPages] => [last_query] => [last_sql] => [show_errors] => 1 [databaseServer] => Array ( [key] => master [host] => 172.24.16.232 [user] => rodpub_beta [pass] => MvQQzhse92k58yA [db] => rodpub_beta ) [tableName] => contents [content_type_id] => 2487 [resource_id] => 0 [author_id] => 0 [primary_issue_slug] => 2019-07-01 [author_name] => {"name":"","title":""} [magazine_id] => 5 [layout_id] => 0 [primary_image] => 190229 [primary_image_old] => [slider_image_id] => 190229 [banner_image] => 0 [title] => RPM Acquires Manufacturer of Commercial Joint Sealants [short_title] => [summary] => Terms of the transaction, which is expected to be accretive to earnings within one year, were not disclosed. [slug] => rpm-acquires-manufacturer-of-commercial-joint-sealants [body] =>
RPM International Inc. announced that its Tremco business acquired Schul International Co., LLC, a manufacturer of joint sealants for commercial construction, and Willseal LLC, a business that markets and sells Schul products. 
 
Both companies are headquartered in Hudson, New Hampshire, and have combined annual net sales of approximately $15 million. Terms of the transaction, which is expected to be accretive to earnings within one year, were not disclosed.
 
Schul’s product line primarily consists of pre-compressed, self-expanding foam tapes, which are used for sealing vertical and horizontal joints in applications that include window seals, precast concrete, modular construction and concrete façade restoration. They are sold under the Sealtite and Willseal brands.  
 
Schul and Willseal will be integrated into RPM’s Tremco Commercial Sealants & Waterproofing business, which specializes in the manufacture of sealants and waterproofing products for commercial, residential, industrial and infrastructure markets. The companies’ entrepreneurial leaders, Steve Robinson of Schul and Brian Iske of Willseal, will continue in their current roles with the business units as part of Tremco.
 
“The acquisition... puts RPM in a leading position for impregnated foam tape technology," RPM Chairman and CEO Frank C. Sullivan said. "Through this transaction, we are creating a platform for North American-based production, augmenting our product development capabilities and leveraging other synergies that will be further enhanced by our MAP to Growth operating improvement initiative.” 
[views] => 0 [published] => 1 [status] => 3 [priority] => 0 [publish_date] => 2019-06-13 09:14:00 [updated_at] => 2019-06-28 11:08:29 [last_updated_author] => 228513 [uploaded_by] => 228513 [user_role_id] => 0 [custom_fields] => [] [custom_fields_old] => [splitcontent] => 1 [content_url] => [related_content_ids] => ["305100","311562","316817","312284","313472","307797","307721","317006","315110","315173","305926"] [is_show_company_name] => [created_at] => 2019-06-13 09:07:57 ) [3] => Content Object ( [className] => Content [contentLinks] => Array ( ) [belongsTo] => [contentIssue] => [id] => 317048 [pageNumber] => [offset] => [totalPages] => [last_query] => [last_sql] => [show_errors] => 1 [databaseServer] => Array ( [key] => master [host] => 172.24.16.232 [user] => rodpub_beta [pass] => MvQQzhse92k58yA [db] => rodpub_beta ) [tableName] => contents [content_type_id] => 2487 [resource_id] => 0 [author_id] => 0 [primary_issue_slug] => [author_name] => {"name":"","title":""} [magazine_id] => 5 [layout_id] => 0 [primary_image] => 191127 [primary_image_old] => [slider_image_id] => 191127 [banner_image] => 0 [title] => LG Chem Appoints Palmer Holland as U.S. Distributor [short_title] => [summary] => LG Chem is a leading global manufacturer in the petrochemical, energy solutions, advanced materials and life sciences industries. [slug] => lg-chem-appoints-palmer-holland-as-us-distributor [body] => LG Chem, a leading global manufacturer in the petrochemical, energy solutions, advanced materials and life sciences industries, has appointed Palmer Holland as national distributor for its line of LUCENE polyolefin elastomers.

LUCENE is LG Chem's representative POE product. It provides distinctly superior impact resistance/shock absorption, high elasticity, and low thermal sealing temperature. LUCENE is commonly used in applications for automotive, footwear, wire, cable, foam, multi-layered films, laminating films, food packing films and films for industrial use.

[views] => 0 [published] => 1 [status] => 3 [priority] => 0 [publish_date] => 2019-06-28 06:40:00 [updated_at] => 2019-06-28 09:01:09 [last_updated_author] => 228513 [uploaded_by] => 142069 [user_role_id] => 0 [custom_fields] => [] [custom_fields_old] => [splitcontent] => 1 [content_url] => [related_content_ids] => ["307338","307726","306751","308402","311967","309539","309688","306148","309732","304823","307293","305884","311730","309143","313618","309144"] [is_show_company_name] => [created_at] => 2019-06-28 06:34:25 ) [4] => Content Object ( [className] => Content [contentLinks] => Array ( ) [belongsTo] => [contentIssue] => [id] => 319101 [pageNumber] => [offset] => [totalPages] => [last_query] => [last_sql] => [show_errors] => 1 [databaseServer] => Array ( [key] => master [host] => 172.24.16.232 [user] => rodpub_beta [pass] => MvQQzhse92k58yA [db] => rodpub_beta ) [tableName] => contents [content_type_id] => 2487 [resource_id] => 0 [author_id] => 0 [primary_issue_slug] => [author_name] => {"name":"","title":""} [magazine_id] => 5 [layout_id] => 0 [primary_image] => 193020 [primary_image_old] => [slider_image_id] => 193020 [banner_image] => 0 [title] => Birla Carbon North America Price Index Change [short_title] => [summary] => [slug] => birla-carbon-north-america-price-index-change [body] =>
Effective Aug. 1, Birla Carbon will change all North America contract price formulas. The long-used index up to this date, U.S. Gulf Coast High Sulfur Fuel Oil, will change to U.S. Gulf Coast 0.5% Sulfur Fuel Oil.  
 
Feedstock to make carbon black is sourced from markets driven by marine fuel.  This market is undergoing fundamental changes driven by regulations widely known as MARPOL 2020 or IMO 2020, which establishes the maximum allowable sulfur content in marine fuel at 0.5%.  While this regulation is effective Jan.1, 2020, the supply chain is adjusting now.   
 
Naturally, these changes have impacted carbon black feedstock markets.  The high sulfur index historically used in carbon black price formulas no longer reflects the markets in which feedstock is procured.  Therefore, this change is necessary to ensure a sustainable supply of carbon black.
 
Carbon black price formula changes in other parts of the world will be communicated separately, consistent with the timing and manner in which those markets are impacted.``
[views] => 0 [published] => 1 [status] => 3 [priority] => 0 [publish_date] => 2019-07-29 05:00:00 [updated_at] => 2019-07-26 10:31:13 [last_updated_author] => 228513 [uploaded_by] => 228513 [user_role_id] => 0 [custom_fields] => [] [custom_fields_old] => [splitcontent] => 1 [content_url] => [related_content_ids] => ["309686","310630","310633","318733","307334","307889","317778","318987","313309","315025","314415","307278","316987","315652","312377"] [is_show_company_name] => [created_at] => 2019-07-26 10:20:11 ) ) [relatedContent] => Array ( [0] => Content Object ( [className] => Content [contentLinks] => Array ( ) [belongsTo] => [contentIssue] => [id] => 315146 [pageNumber] => [offset] => [totalPages] => [last_query] => [last_sql] => [show_errors] => 1 [databaseServer] => Array ( [key] => master [host] => 172.24.16.232 [user] => rodpub_beta [pass] => MvQQzhse92k58yA [db] => rodpub_beta ) [tableName] => contents [content_type_id] => 2486 [resource_id] => 0 [author_id] => 0 [primary_issue_slug] => 2019-06-01 [author_name] => {"name":"Kerry Pianoforte","title":"Editor"} [magazine_id] => 5 [layout_id] => 0 [primary_image] => 0 [primary_image_old] => [slider_image_id] => [banner_image] => 0 [title] => Performance Enhancing Additives [short_title] => [summary] => [slug] => performance-enhancing-additives--688643 [body] => This month Coatings World interviewed a number of key suppliers of performance-enhancing additives. These include: Shiona Stewart, industry marketing manager, Transporation, Industrial, Furniture and Floor Coatings, BASF and Mary Ellen Gustainis, business director, Performance and Formulation Additives, BASF; Dr. Joerg Hinnerwisch, BYK technical director Research & Development, Head of Technology Group Wetting & Dispersing; Dave Grabacki, president, keim additc USA; Richard Czarnecki, director of Business Development, Micro Powders, Inc.; Joon Choo, vice president, Shamrock Technologies; Robert Ruckle, market manager at Siltech; Erin Bellomy of Solvay and Dr. Ismael Colon, senior vice resident, Science & Technology at Troy Corp.

CW: What types of performance-enhancing additives does your company offer? 

Stewart: BASF has a broad portfolio of light-stabilizing and UV absorbing technologies as well as formulation additives that enhance application properties, rheological profile, surface aesthetics and appearance, and color integrity for many different types of coating chemistries.  Our extensive family of enabling additives are targeted to provide superior performance for coatings that have been optimized to meet the demanding environments encountered in the Transportation, Industrial, Decorative, Construction, and Flooring Markets.  Our light stabilizing and UV absorbing technologies include a wide range of benzotriazole, triazine, and hindered amine light stabilizer chemistries as well as specialty offerings such as a new and unique photolatent metal catalyst targeted for 2K polyurethane coating systems. 

Hinnerwisch: BYK offers a broad range of performance-enhancing additive solutions, which open up new opportunities for coating and ink formulators. These include wetting and dispersing additives based on novel chemistries, which provide sufficient viscosity reduction and deflocculation properties for inorganic/organic pigments, with the lowest possible performance impact as regards water, corrosion
and staining.

Grabacki: keimgroup with its affiliated producing companies keim additec surface, silcona, euroceras and ceronas is offering besides a broad variety of aqueous ULTRALUBE wax additives and high performance SILCO coating additives also different types of solid/micronized waxes under the brand names CERALENE and mju:wax.

Czarnecki: While Micro Powders began nearly 50 years ago as a supplier of micronized waxes, our particle technology expertise has expanded into the development of high-performance additives that are more functional and efficient.

Choo: Shamrock offers a range of micronized powders and dispersions for a wide variety of coatings systems to improve the surface slip, feel, water repellency, and mar/abrasion resistance, as well as to control the gloss and texture/appearance of
the coatings.

Ruckle:  Siltech offers a wide variety of chemically modified silicones.  The versatility of the silicone polymer allows for attachment of groups that add solubility in oil or water, reactivity, or other unique properties.  Siltech offers a myriad of Silmer reactive silicones each with a reactive group that matches the reactive moieties used in the resin chemistry.  For example, we have epoxy, hydroxyl or primary amine functional Silmer additives any of which react into an epoxy resin system. Siltech even offers NCO functional silicones which can react with urethane prepolymers which often are made with hydroxyl groups exposed rather than NCO.

Bellomy: Solvay provide a series of paint additives for paint formulators. It includes defoamer, wetting, dispersant, high boiling point coalescent and specialty additive, such as VOC free freeze-thaw agent and open time extender.

Colon: As a dedicated supplier of a broad portfolio of advanced additives, in addition to preservatives and driers, Troy Corporation offers a full line of performance-enhancing products, including defoamers, rheology modifiers, thixotropic agents, substrate wetting and flow & leveling additives, mar resistance & slip agents, and dispersants. These performance additives are developed for a broad range of aqueous and non-aqueous system types.

CW: Given the added cost associated with these types of additives, what are the benefits to the customer? 

Gustainis: The customer is essentially given the key to creating high-value, high-performance coatings is protection against a variety of degrading environmental and artificial factors, including solar radiation, temperature change, and chemical interactions.
Thermal degradation that can occur during processing, production, and service life is another main area of concern in the coatings space. BASF’s Irganox portfolio of antioxidants based on sterically hindered phenols, phosphites, and thioethers act to protect coatings, fibers, adhesives, and sealants against thermal oxidation.

Stewart: Our Tinuvin branded chemistries offer extended protection from UV degradation, truly differentiated protection for carbon fiber-reinforced plastics or glass fiber-reinforced plastics where fibers are embedded in an epoxy matrix requiring outstanding photo permanence and protection, and low-no migration throughout the coating and substrate with no exudation in polar solvent borne systems.  Importantly, our Tinuvin chemistries, through the use of our patented BASF Tinuvin Novel Encapsulation Additive Technology, or “NEAT” encapsulation technology, are also able to be modified for use in waterborne coatings.

The versatility and flexibility of our portfolio offers our customers the ability to select the optimum product offering for their unique formulation space. 

Hinnerwisch: Multifunctional BYK wetting and dispersing additives not only promote coating aesthetics and facilitate processing via viscosity reduction, but also improve stain and water resistance capabilities. As such, these additives play a major role in the improvement of a coating’s lifespan, and formulators can add longevity to their products by the cautious selection of BYK’s wetting & dispersing additives for water-borne coatings.

Grabacki: The broad product portfolios of the different companies within the group ensures the possibility of a very precise adjustment of the desired surface properties to achieve with the particular types; besides this several types of additives can be supplied out of “one-hand.”

Czarnecki: We can demonstrate that, with proper particle additive design, a more expensive additive, used at a lower dosage than a lower performance wax, can deliver better performance and economics.

Choo: Some of these additives are unique in the surface effect they can offer, especially to withstand tough processing conditions and for the extended term protective coatings.

Ruckle: Silicone additives provide slip, COF reduction, release, pencil hardness and anti-blocking all from the low surface energy of the silicone polymer.  Many of these can also provide surface tension reduction which leads to wetting, flow and leveling, air release and defect elimination.  Finally the reactive Silmer products will change the mechanical properties of the film typically adding flexibility, elongation, strength and impact resistance.  The inherent properties of the silicone backbone also provide permeability to gases and hydrophobicity.

Bellomy: Solvay solution answer challenging criteria and labeling requirements in the design of sustainable and environmentally-friendly products. Whether it is compliant with eco-labels such as GreenSeal, or suitable for claims and formulation requirements such as low or zero VOC, APE-free, biodegradable or renewable raw materials.

Colon: Value-added performance additives are essential to the formulation, production, and application of high-quality coatings, whether for architectural or industrial use, and aqueous or non-aqueous systems. Wetting and flow & leveling additives, such as Troy’s Troysol products, control a wide range of product properties, enhance surface appearance and integrity, and eliminate film defects. These additives allow the formulation of films with excellent resistance to mar and abrasion, with increased surface slip. Wetting and flow & leveling additives also allow for coating over many substrate types, including contaminated substrates. Dispersants, such as the Troysperse line, ensure optimum color strength and uniformity. Defoamers, such as Troykyd additives, eliminate entrapped air so that bubbles and pinholes don’t degrade the applied coating film. Thixotropic agents and rheology modifiers, like Troy’s Troythix products, improve the storage stability, application, and appearance of manufactured products and production processes, and enable precise control of the rheological properties of the materials to which they are added. Troythix rheology products enable control of viscosity, settling resistance and sag resistance.

CW: What considerations should formulators make when choosing a performance enhancing additive? 

Stewart: There are many critical determinations that need to be considered when selecting the appropriate additives.  Is the intended coating waterborne, solventborne, UV Curable, or powder?  Is the intended substrate known or are multiple substrates in consideration such as metal, plastic, composites, wood, and concrete?  Environmental exposure should also be considered and fully understood to determine what type of UV resistance is needed, especially for harsh exterior environments. This is especially important when selecting additives that will be used in automotive coating, exterior decking.  

Maintaining color integrity, resistance to fading and mechanical properties of organic substrates, as well as preventing delamination and gloss reduction from occurring in coatings due to years of exposure to degrading environmental factors such as UV rays is where BASF brings value to our customers.

Gustainis: Another key factor for formulators to consider is the type of activities that are required to produce the product. Thermal degradation encountered during processing steps such as synthesis, mixing, curing, or high-temperature-baking cycles is the main cause of yellowing, embrittlement, or loss of other mechanical properties such as tensile strength in
organic substrates.

Hinnerwisch: Pigment dispersions and their challenges for waterborne coatings are just one crucial aspect for paint formulators. In order to improve the overall performance of water-borne coatings, one should keep in mind all formulation components, such as rheological/surface modifiers, emulsifiers or thickeners and their interactions.

Grabacki: Besides satisfying the general technical needs at an adequate price/performance ratio especially more and more requests reaching us for environmentally acceptable (“green”) additives. We are facing this challenge by offering formulated products e.g. being VOC-free, without amines or other hazardous ingredients.

Czarnecki: Some of the factors we consider when recommending an additive are system type (water/solvent/UV), dry film thickness, and end use. We make recommendations to customers on a daily basis through our website since it can be intimidating to find the best additive for a given project.

Choo: Not all additives are created equal, nor will they offer the same degree of efficacy. Formulators ought to consider their ease of use/incorporation, stability and compatibility with their system, as well as the immediate vs long term performance features they impart.

Ruckle: There are many variables in silicone additives including molecular weight, molecular architecture, degree and type of functionality and cross-linking which affect the properties.  In particular, one has to be careful to ensure the additive has the right solubility so choosing the right additive for your situation is critical.  While some properties like foam control and release benefit from incompatibility too much incompatibility can cause problems from gloss reduction to defect formation.

Bellomy:  Usually, the formulator may consider the overall performance of  paint, such as color tinting strength, application work-ability and paint film durability. The costing is also considerate.

Colon: When choosing a performance-enhancing additive, formulators should consider system type – aqueous or non-aqueous – as well as pH, application temperature, and the type of incorporation the additive and the formulator’s manufacturing processes require. Furthermore, VOC and APEO requirements should be taken into account. Troy offers a broad portfolio of performance additives for every system type, including Z-line additives, which are zero VOC and APEO-free for modern ‘green’ systems. The new Troysperse ZWD line of dispersants is an excellent example of these ‘green’ products.

CW: What are the latest technologies being developed for additives in paint and coatings?

Stewart: Reactive technologies are growing in interest, because the reactivity offers almost synergistic effects, for incredible performance enhancement.  For example, our new reactive dispersant crosslinks into the main resin matrix for optimum hardness, while still delivering beautiful pigment dispersion…this is atypical for dispersants, where hardness and dispersing efficiency are often at odds with one another. 

Hinnerwisch: Multifunctional additives are gaining popularity all the time. BYK provides “smart” wetting and dispersing additives, which adjust their polarity in response to the changing chemical environment.

Since the additive undergoes a structural change and rearrangement during the drying process, the resulting architecture provides a reduction of water pick-up and, as such, improves the water resistance of the coating.

Grabacki: Today’s paint market is pushing for low- /non-emission paints. Solvents are no longer formulated. By that reason the time frame to rework painted areas is shortened and the open time needs to be extended.

SILCONA developed an open time extender without the negative side effects of decreased stain resistance or longterm stickiness. 

Choo: Surface and morphology modifications as well as the use of hybrid polymer/blends seem to be the trend today, to help ensure ease of incorporation, stability post incorporation, as well as ability to wet out easily at high loadings when concentrates are preferred for some production lines. Some formulated additive packages are also developed to be compliant with the changing regulatory environment.

Ruckle: Siltech is offering Silmer TMS products which are trialkoxy silane functional silicone derivatives. These provide interesting surface properties and help with adhesion, stain release and interaction with other surfaces such as pigments  This last property has been utilized by formulating Silmer TMS and mineral particles into super hydropbobic systems. These have also recently been shown to provide a secondary condensation cure in certain UV cured systems.

We have also recently developed Silmer ACRN products which are tetrafunctional UV reactive products that provide slip, flexibility and impact resistance with less problems from immiscibility such as loss of clarity or gloss.

Finally, our Silmer UACR products are hybrid urethane/silicone polymers designed to improve elongation in UV cured systems including 3D printing systems.

Bellomy:  Solvay just launched formaldehyde scavenger additive Rhodoline FS 360 for paint producer. With this additive, the paint producer can easily achieve formaldehyde scavenger properties by post adding to various different paint formulations.

Colon: Troy is a company built on innovation, and is committed to the research & development of the latest technologies to enable customers to lead in the marketplace. ‘Green,’ zero-VOC additives, such as Troy’s expanding Z-line, are increasingly important, and will remain the focus of R&D efforts. Multifunctional additives, such as Troykyd D209W and Troykyd D767, are also an important focus of our efforts. Multifunctional additives that perform the function of numerous additives are of interest to customers, as they simplify the formulation process, contribute less material and expense to formulations, and reduce inventory.

Troykyd D209W air release additive prevents micro- and macro-foam in both the process and application of a broad range of coating systems. The product provides high efficacy with good compatibility, significantly reducing or eliminating the occurrence of film defects.

Troykyd D767 is a highly effective mineral oil-free and silicone-free defoamer for aqueous systems. It is effective over a wide range of pH, temperatures, viscosities,
and sheens. 

CW: Please provide a brief description of up to two new performance enhancing additives.

Stewart: Solyfast 0010 is an organotin-free photolatent metal catalyst recommended for use in curing 2-component polyurethane systems and provides a wide variety of benefits due to its unique ability to accelerate cure times with low energy (ambient) temperatures.  This performance benefit addresses the issues associated with having to heat very large objects, such as the wing of an airplane, or heat-sensitive parts such as plastic components, or even heavy metal exterior structures.  Solyfast 0010 will also increase production productivity via faster throughput, and short handling or moving times of recently coated parts.

Tinuvin 249 is a non-basic hindered amine light stabilizer designed to meet the high-performance requirements of solventborne Automotive, Industrial, or Decorative Coatings that demand superior formulation compatibility and outstanding thermal, color, and shelf stability.

Hinnerwisch: Wetting & dispersing additives play a critical role in the formulation of water-borne coatings; however, their hydrophilic structural moieties can impair the coating properties. DISPERBYK-2080 and DISPERBYK-2081 provide excellent viscosity reduction in inorganic pigments and fillers, without negatively affecting water and corrosion resistance. This is especially important for anticorrosive primers and DTM coatings, as well as industrial wood coatings, where stain resistance is expected.

Grabacki: SILCO OZ 100 retards water within the film and is an open time extender for paints and coatings. The product provides additionally gloss enhancement as well as wetting properties without effecting the stain resistance or hardness of the film. mju:wax 9200 – micronized wax modified FT-wax compound for solvent based coatings. Provides; outstanding metal marking resistance, excellent slip properties, very good anti-blocking properties and scratch resistance.

Czarnecki: Micro Powders has offered products based on our Composite Wax Technology for many years. In recent years, we expanded this technology to include a range of HD (high density) powders, specifically designed for better stability in water based and UV systems.  Most recently, we pioneered the concept of Nanocomposite Wax Technology, where we incorporate highly functional nanomaterials into a safe, easy to disperse powders.  We now offer four products in our AL (alumina) series that offer best-in-class scratch and Taber abrasion resistance.

Choo: Shamrock Neptune 250-SD2 is an example of a recent additive that was introduced bearing some of the above factors and performance features. AquaFLON MG represents the best balance of hybrid polymers available as a pre-dispersion for use in water based inks and coatings.

Bellomy: Rhodoline FS 360 is a high-performance formaldehyde scavenger additive. High formaldehyde scavenging efficiency/capacity; no negative impact on paint performance, such as yellowing, heat stability, wet scrub resistance; formulation and process flexibility; can formulate both low and high PVC paint and can be both used in new formulation or post-added to existing formula and low VOC, low odor. [views] => 0 [published] => 1 [status] => 3 [priority] => 0 [publish_date] => 2019-05-31 09:01:00 [updated_at] => 2019-05-31 08:22:14 [last_updated_author] => 188865 [uploaded_by] => 142069 [user_role_id] => 0 [custom_fields] => [] [custom_fields_old] => [splitcontent] => 1 [content_url] => [related_content_ids] => ["311654","312921","305606","306615","303961","314193","308841","314198","306287","314622","303278","314490","310202","309294","308843"] [is_show_company_name] => [created_at] => 2019-05-29 12:55:28 ) [1] => Content Object ( [className] => Content [contentLinks] => Array ( ) [belongsTo] => [contentIssue] => [id] => 315126 [pageNumber] => [offset] => [totalPages] => [last_query] => [last_sql] => [show_errors] => 1 [databaseServer] => Array ( [key] => master [host] => 172.24.16.232 [user] => rodpub_beta [pass] => MvQQzhse92k58yA [db] => rodpub_beta ) [tableName] => contents [content_type_id] => 2773 [resource_id] => 0 [author_id] => 0 [primary_issue_slug] => 2019-06-01 [author_name] => {"name":"Otto Soidinsalo, Synnøve Holtan, Ali Moosavifar","title":"Borregaard, Sarpsborg, Norway"} [magazine_id] => 5 [layout_id] => 0 [primary_image] => 189391 [primary_image_old] => 123035 [slider_image_id] => 189397 [banner_image] => 0 [title] => Microfibrillated Cellulose A Novel and Renewable Multifunctional Additive for Waterborne Coatings [short_title] => [summary] => [slug] => microfibrillated-cellulose-a-novel-and-renewable-multifunctional-additive-for-waterborne-coatings [body] => Abstract

There is a growing interest to move toward waterborne systems in the coatings industry due to environmental and occupational health reasons. However, the change is not always straightforward and often new technologies are required to obtain the same performance as with solventborne systems.

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), a value-added and multifunctional product made of cellulose, consists of fibers with lateral dimensions in the nanoscale range and lengths up to the micron scale. The main characteristic of this unique fiber structure is its resemblance to both water-soluble polymers and insoluble additives, leading to a versatile and efficient alternative to technologies currently available. The high inertness, compatibility and stability of MFC opens up new possibilities for waterborne coatings, especially for the more demanding formulations. MFC secures high viscosity at rest, giving good stability, as well as offering shear thinning behavior and rapid viscosity build-up, which prevents sag during application.

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of MFC on the rheological behavior of the coating formulation as well as on the final film properties. Waterborne exterior flat paint, based on a blend of acrylic and vinyl acrylic binders, was used to investigate the effect of MFC on the prevention of syneresis as well as mud cracking of the coating. Deep base acrylic paint was used to evaluate the effectiveness of MFC in preventing viscosity loss on tinting, color float and sagging.

We demonstrate how MFC can solve typical challenges in waterborne high-quality architectural coatings regarding, for example, mud-cracking, viscosity loss upon tinting, sagging and sprayability.

Introduction

It is commonly known that waterborne formulations still suffer from several issues and it`s not always possible to obtain the same performance as with solvent-borne systems. One of the typical challenges with waterborne systems is related to the relatively rapid drying of the film leading to short open time. The short open time naturally creates challenges regarding the workability as well as the applicability. Short open times also set limits on the wet thickness of the film. Mud cracking is often observed when thick layers are applied and the drying takes place at low temperatures. Another challenge in waterborne systems is related to the behavior of rheology modifiers in the presence of surfactants as well as under extreme pH conditions. The common rheology modifiers can be divided roughly into two categories, associative and non-associative. The former is typically sensitive to the presence of surfactants and this is often seen after the tinting of the base paint. In most cases, the viscosity of the paint reduces as a consequence of disturbance in the associative network due to the surfactants present in the tinting paste.

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is a multifunctional additive for coatings, adhesives and sealants, with a pronounced effect in improving rheology, stabilization and surface properties. MFC is suitable for a wide variety of polar organic and waterborne systems, enabling the control of viscosity and modification of thixotropy of various water and polar solvent-based systems. The high inertness, compatibility and stability of MFC allows the development of stable and robust formulations, even under demanding conditions. In addition, MFC offers solutions for formulators for improved anti-settling, anti-syneresis and anti-cracking of the coatings formulations.

The compatibility and rheological behavior of microfibrillated cellulose has previously been studied in water-based acrylic and epoxy systems.1,2 The results from these studies showed that MFC dispersed very well into the resins and showed good compatibility. In addition, the viscosity and sag resistance increased with increasing concentration of MFC. Furthermore, the dispersions were heat stable in terms of sedimentation and retention of rheological properties.

The unique rheological properties of MFC lead to better control of the formulations by controlling the flow of the particles. It has been shown that MFC can prevent the coffee-ring effect during the drying process of films, leading to a better distribution of particles and pigments.3 This opens up possibilities for increased effectiveness and better color development of pigments and fillers, such as titanium dioxide.

Microfibrillated Cellulose

Microfibrillated cellulose was first introduced back in the eighties.4 During the years its potential and possible uses have been reported extensively, ranging from use as a thickener in cosmetics to an oxygen barrier in food packaging.5 Until the beginning of 2010 the research and small scale production of MFC was conducted mainly at universities and small pilot facilities. Borregaard launched the commercial production of MFC, opening a 1000 Dry MT Exilva factory in 2016 as the first one in the world.6

MFC consists of long and thin cellulose fibrils which form a three-dimensional (3D) network. The secret behind the unique properties is the extremely large surface area, combined with numerous hydroxyl groups on the surface of the fibrils. The interaction of MFC is based on physical as well as on chemical interaction in the formulation. The main characteristics of this unique fibril structure resembles a hybrid of water-soluble polymers and insoluble additives. MFC has high viscosity and yield stress, it is shear thinning and has high water holding capacity. The insoluble nature of the cellulose fibrils also leads to excellent stability and compatibility. MFC is stable at wide pH range (1-13) and is compatible with common water-miscible organic solvent as well as with surfactants.

Compared to common polymer solutions in water, the rheological properties of MFC suspensions are quite different. First of all, the viscosity does not reach a plateau at low shear as it normally does in polymer solutions. This can be seen in Figure 1, which shows that the viscosity of MFC suspension increases as the shear rate decreases. Instead, the viscosity of xanthan gum solution reaches a plateau around the shear rate of 0.1 s-1. This means that the viscosity at rest is much higher for MFC, in this case nearly 50 times higher, meaning considerably better stability under storage, especially in terms of syneresis and settling. At higher shear rates, xanthan gum solution and MFC suspension have comparable shear thinning which helps in pumping, spraying, mixing and application of the formulation.

Due to the high viscosity at low shear rate and very shear thinning behavior, MFC can also be used as a thickener in products that are intended to be applied by spraying. MFC secures high stability during storage and allows the spraying of very thick suspensions since the viscosity decreases during the spraying. However, when the product has been applied and no forces are applied, the viscosity recovers quickly, and the product remains where it impacted the surface without sagging (Figure 2). In addition to anti-sagging, the use of MFC leads to a non-dripping effect, which is often desired in coatings.

Materials and Methods

Commercially available MFC (Exilva® F 01-V) was used in this study,  containing 10 wt% microfibrillated cellulose in water (manufactured by Borregaard). The anti-mud-cracking effect of MFC was studied with an exterior acrylic paint formulation. A paint sample was applied by a Leneta Anti Sag Meter (14-60 mils) to the reverse side of Leneta Form 9A charts at ambient temperature and at 2 °C. The paints were allowed to dry in a flat position for 24 hours. The greatest mils without mud-cracking were reported. Sag resistance (tinted) was determined according to ASTM D4440, flow and levelling (tinted) according to ASTM D4062, gloss (tinted) according to ASTM D523 and scrub resistance according to ASTM D2486.

Results and Discussions

In order to understand the behaviour of MFC in waterborne systems, two different formulations were studied. Acrylic exterior flat coating was used to demonstrate the impact of MFC on drying behaviour of the curing film as well as the storage stability of the formulation. Interior acrylic deep base formulation was used to investigate the effect of MFC on viscosity loss after tinting as well as rheological and surface properties of the coating.

Acrylic Coating - Storage Stability and Drying Behaviour
The effect of MFC on storage stability and film properties was studied with exterior flat paint (Table 1). The formulation was based on a blend of acrylic and vinyl acrylic binders, with either hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) as a thickener or MFC as a functional additive. In both cases, non-ionic urethane rheology modifier (HEUR) was used to adjust the high-shear viscosity.
In addition to the rheology modification, the formulation based on MFC displayed increased mudcrack resistance during curing from 35 °F to 75 °F, outperforming the same formulation when based on HEC. With MFC, no cracking was observed even at 60 mils thickness, whereas the HEC paint displayed cracking for all thicknesses above 14 mils (Figure 3). The improved mud crack resistance is a consequence of the effect of MFC on the drying of the film. During the drying, MFC does not form a “skin” on top of the film, allowing the solvents to evaporate freely. MFC also increases the open time of the formulation as well as reduces the tackiness of the film. A clear difference in stability was also seen between the two formulations after two weeks’ heat stability testing at 120 °F. The formulation based on HEC showed moderate syneresis, whereas no syneresis was observed with the formulation based on MFC (Figure 4).

Effect of MFC on the Loss of Viscosity and Color Float of an Acrylic Coating Upon Tinting
The effect of MFC on film properties as well as its ability to prevent loss on tinting and color float was studied with an acrylic deep base formulation (Table 2). The formulation was based on an acrylic binder, with either non-ionic urethane modifier (HEUR) as a thickener or MFC as a functional additive. In both cases, HEUR thickener was used to adjust the high shear viscosity.

The effect of MFC on viscosity retention after tinting with 808-9907 Lamp Black (8 ounces per gallon) can be clearly seen from Figure 5. The viscosity of the HEUR-based formulation drops 12.6 %, whereas the formulation based on MFC only 4.0 %. The difference can be explained by the physical nature of the MFC fibrils. The thickening effect of MFC is based on the physical interaction with the fibrils as well as the hydrogen bonding with the other components in the system. Therefore, the network is not affected by the presence of surfactants or other hydrophobic compounds.

A major difference was also noticed on sagging (Table 3). The high viscosity at rest and relatively fast viscosity recovery of MFC, resulted in a sag resistance rating of 24 according to ASTM D4400, whereas the formulation based on HEUR resulted in a sag rating of 4. Color acceptance was at a similar level for both formulations. Color float was slightly lower for MFC. A strong effect on gloss was noticed when MFC was used as a rheology modifier. The gloss for the HEUR-based formulation was 37.2 (60°), whereas for the MFC-based formulation it was 10.1. As the levelling for both formulations was at a similar level, 9 for HEUR and 8 for MFC (ASTM D4062), the loss on gloss is thought to be related to the physical structure of the MFC fibrils, leading to a mattifying effect. This also means that MFC can be used to formulate smooth surface flat paints, at higher dosage levels. Both formulations showed good scrub resistance, with MFC showing slightly higher resistance (1351 vs 1278).

Conclusions

The effect of MFC on the rheology of the coating formulations as well as on the film properties is prominent. The effect is especially significant at low-temperature film formation, offering huge benefits when applying MFC in high-quality exterior paints for cold climates. MFC enables increased applied film thickness, thereby reducing the number of applied film layers required, without comprimising the final coating properties. The high viscosity at rest, combined with high yield stress results in stable formulations and allows homogenous formulations even in the presence of heavy particles or low density fillers. The relatively fast viscosity recovery leads to excellent sag resistance without sacrificing the levelling of the coating. In addition, the 3D MFC network is highly robust and is not affected by the addition of surfactants or changes in pH. MFC prevents viscosity loss after tinting and helps to reduce the color float of the coating. Depending on the dosage of MFC, effect on the gloss of the coating can be seen. This opens up possibilities to formulate smooth surface flat paints. MFC is a sustainable, VOC-free, multifunctional additive which can not only replace synthetic additives in formulations, but also contribute added value to the end products.

REFERENCES

1. A. Moosavifar and S. Holtan, European Coatings Congress proceedings, 2015.
2. A.M. Falkenberg Olsen, S. Holtan and A. Moosavifar, European Coatings Journal, 2015, 07/08, 30.
3.  Y. Ooi, I. Hanasaki, D. Mizumura and Y. Matsuda, Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 2017, 1, 316.
4. A. F, Turbak, F.W. Snyder and K.R. Sandberg, US Patent 4,500,546, 1982.
5. D. Klemm, F. Kramer, S. Moritz, T. Lindström, M. Ankerfors, D. Gray and A. Dorris, (2011) Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed. 2011, 24, 5438.
6.  www.exilva.com CW [views] => 0 [published] => 1 [status] => 3 [priority] => 0 [publish_date] => 2019-05-31 09:30:00 [updated_at] => 2019-05-31 08:31:23 [last_updated_author] => 188865 [uploaded_by] => 142069 [user_role_id] => 0 [custom_fields] => [] [custom_fields_old] => [splitcontent] => 1 [content_url] => [related_content_ids] => ["303382","309531","308282","307181","302906","312028","309038","309275","256815","313621","310550","314189","309261","309442","311730","309595"] [is_show_company_name] => [created_at] => 2019-05-29 10:36:19 ) [2] => Content Object ( [className] => Content [contentLinks] => Array ( ) [belongsTo] => [contentIssue] => [id] => 316137 [pageNumber] => [offset] => [totalPages] => [last_query] => [last_sql] => [show_errors] => 1 [databaseServer] => Array ( [key] => master [host] => 172.24.16.232 [user] => rodpub_beta [pass] => MvQQzhse92k58yA [db] => rodpub_beta ) [tableName] => contents [content_type_id] => 2487 [resource_id] => 0 [author_id] => 0 [primary_issue_slug] => 2019-07-01 [author_name] => {"name":"","title":""} [magazine_id] => 5 [layout_id] => 0 [primary_image] => 190229 [primary_image_old] => [slider_image_id] => 190229 [banner_image] => 0 [title] => RPM Acquires Manufacturer of Commercial Joint Sealants [short_title] => [summary] => Terms of the transaction, which is expected to be accretive to earnings within one year, were not disclosed. [slug] => rpm-acquires-manufacturer-of-commercial-joint-sealants [body] =>
RPM International Inc. announced that its Tremco business acquired Schul International Co., LLC, a manufacturer of joint sealants for commercial construction, and Willseal LLC, a business that markets and sells Schul products. 
 
Both companies are headquartered in Hudson, New Hampshire, and have combined annual net sales of approximately $15 million. Terms of the transaction, which is expected to be accretive to earnings within one year, were not disclosed.
 
Schul’s product line primarily consists of pre-compressed, self-expanding foam tapes, which are used for sealing vertical and horizontal joints in applications that include window seals, precast concrete, modular construction and concrete façade restoration. They are sold under the Sealtite and Willseal brands.  
 
Schul and Willseal will be integrated into RPM’s Tremco Commercial Sealants & Waterproofing business, which specializes in the manufacture of sealants and waterproofing products for commercial, residential, industrial and infrastructure markets. The companies’ entrepreneurial leaders, Steve Robinson of Schul and Brian Iske of Willseal, will continue in their current roles with the business units as part of Tremco.
 
“The acquisition... puts RPM in a leading position for impregnated foam tape technology," RPM Chairman and CEO Frank C. Sullivan said. "Through this transaction, we are creating a platform for North American-based production, augmenting our product development capabilities and leveraging other synergies that will be further enhanced by our MAP to Growth operating improvement initiative.” 
[views] => 0 [published] => 1 [status] => 3 [priority] => 0 [publish_date] => 2019-06-13 09:14:00 [updated_at] => 2019-06-28 11:08:29 [last_updated_author] => 228513 [uploaded_by] => 228513 [user_role_id] => 0 [custom_fields] => [] [custom_fields_old] => [splitcontent] => 1 [content_url] => [related_content_ids] => ["305100","311562","316817","312284","313472","307797","307721","317006","315110","315173","305926"] [is_show_company_name] => [created_at] => 2019-06-13 09:07:57 ) [3] => Content Object ( [className] => Content [contentLinks] => Array ( ) [belongsTo] => [contentIssue] => [id] => 317048 [pageNumber] => [offset] => [totalPages] => [last_query] => [last_sql] => [show_errors] => 1 [databaseServer] => Array ( [key] => master [host] => 172.24.16.232 [user] => rodpub_beta [pass] => MvQQzhse92k58yA [db] => rodpub_beta ) [tableName] => contents [content_type_id] => 2487 [resource_id] => 0 [author_id] => 0 [primary_issue_slug] => [author_name] => {"name":"","title":""} [magazine_id] => 5 [layout_id] => 0 [primary_image] => 191127 [primary_image_old] => [slider_image_id] => 191127 [banner_image] => 0 [title] => LG Chem Appoints Palmer Holland as U.S. Distributor [short_title] => [summary] => LG Chem is a leading global manufacturer in the petrochemical, energy solutions, advanced materials and life sciences industries. [slug] => lg-chem-appoints-palmer-holland-as-us-distributor [body] => LG Chem, a leading global manufacturer in the petrochemical, energy solutions, advanced materials and life sciences industries, has appointed Palmer Holland as national distributor for its line of LUCENE polyolefin elastomers.

LUCENE is LG Chem's representative POE product. It provides distinctly superior impact resistance/shock absorption, high elasticity, and low thermal sealing temperature. LUCENE is commonly used in applications for automotive, footwear, wire, cable, foam, multi-layered films, laminating films, food packing films and films for industrial use.

[views] => 0 [published] => 1 [status] => 3 [priority] => 0 [publish_date] => 2019-06-28 06:40:00 [updated_at] => 2019-06-28 09:01:09 [last_updated_author] => 228513 [uploaded_by] => 142069 [user_role_id] => 0 [custom_fields] => [] [custom_fields_old] => [splitcontent] => 1 [content_url] => [related_content_ids] => ["307338","307726","306751","308402","311967","309539","309688","306148","309732","304823","307293","305884","311730","309143","313618","309144"] [is_show_company_name] => [created_at] => 2019-06-28 06:34:25 ) [4] => Content Object ( [className] => Content [contentLinks] => Array ( ) [belongsTo] => [contentIssue] => [id] => 319101 [pageNumber] => [offset] => [totalPages] => [last_query] => [last_sql] => [show_errors] => 1 [databaseServer] => Array ( [key] => master [host] => 172.24.16.232 [user] => rodpub_beta [pass] => MvQQzhse92k58yA [db] => rodpub_beta ) [tableName] => contents [content_type_id] => 2487 [resource_id] => 0 [author_id] => 0 [primary_issue_slug] => [author_name] => {"name":"","title":""} [magazine_id] => 5 [layout_id] => 0 [primary_image] => 193020 [primary_image_old] => [slider_image_id] => 193020 [banner_image] => 0 [title] => Birla Carbon North America Price Index Change [short_title] => [summary] => [slug] => birla-carbon-north-america-price-index-change [body] =>
Effective Aug. 1, Birla Carbon will change all North America contract price formulas. The long-used index up to this date, U.S. Gulf Coast High Sulfur Fuel Oil, will change to U.S. Gulf Coast 0.5% Sulfur Fuel Oil.  
 
Feedstock to make carbon black is sourced from markets driven by marine fuel.  This market is undergoing fundamental changes driven by regulations widely known as MARPOL 2020 or IMO 2020, which establishes the maximum allowable sulfur content in marine fuel at 0.5%.  While this regulation is effective Jan.1, 2020, the supply chain is adjusting now.   
 
Naturally, these changes have impacted carbon black feedstock markets.  The high sulfur index historically used in carbon black price formulas no longer reflects the markets in which feedstock is procured.  Therefore, this change is necessary to ensure a sustainable supply of carbon black.
 
Carbon black price formula changes in other parts of the world will be communicated separately, consistent with the timing and manner in which those markets are impacted.``
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